Scam, kidnap by South African police

Scam, kidnap by South African police

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Scam, kidnap by South African police

Scam, kidnap by South African police

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Shirley Chisholm click here
Cory Booker is the first Black senator from New Jersey click here
Grieving Trayvon Martin, calling for an end to racial profiling. Yvette D Clarke (Democrat-NY) click here
President Obama explains the US plan to give healthcare to all Americans, including those who cannot afford to pay for insurance (the US govt will pay it for you) and those who can pay but refuse (you will pay a tax) click here
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"A court–ordered redistricting that carved a new Brooklyn congressional district out of Chisholm's Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood convinced her to run for Congress.

The Democratic political machine, headed by Stanley Steingut, declared its intention to send an African American from the new district to the House.

In the primary, Chisholm faced 3 African–American challengers: civil court judge Thomas R. Jones, a former district leader and New York assemblyman; Dolly Robinson, a former district co–leader; and William C  Thompson, a state senator.

Chisholm roamed the new district in a sound truck that pulled up outside housing projects while she announced: "Ladies and Gentlemen … this is fighting Shirley Chisholm coming through."

In the primary in mid–June 1968, Chisholm defeated Thompson, her nearest competitor, by about 800 votes."

Congressional Black Caucus

Congressional Black Caucus. SJ Dodgson. MJoTA 2013 v7n2 p0923

Organizations can be small for many reasons, but the reason for the Congressional Black Caucus being small is that its size is restricted by its members having to be first, elected to the House or the Senate of the Congress of the United States of America, and they have to be self-described and nationally recognized as being Black.

Being a lifelong advocate for sons and daughters of Africa does not get you in as a Congressman Steve Cohen found out in 2006. More than his constituents are sons and daughters of Africa and he believed that he could best represent them if he was allowed to be part of the Caucus.

No. That is not the purpose of the Caucus. The purpose of the Caucus is to work together to support each other. Because members of Congress who are sons or daughters of Africa belong to an endangered species.

From emancipation until 1901, 22 members of Congress were identified as Black. All were men, because women were forbidden from voting. All Black congressmen came from the south: the furthest north, Virginia, sent a single congressman. Most Black congressmen had few features of their West African ancestors.

The first 3 Black congressmen were elected together to the 41st Congress (1869-1871); this number steadily increased until the 44th Congress (1875-1877), which had 8 Black members. And then the number declined again to none in the 57th Congress (1901-1903).

After a long absence, a Black congressman was elected in 1933, Oscar de Priest, from Chicago. The 2nd and 3rd congressmen that followed, each the sole Black congressman during their terms, were also from Chicago. The 3rd congressman, William Dawson, satyed in congress 27 years, and was joined in his 2nd term by Adam Clayton Powell jr, elected from New York City's Harlem, also for decades of servce.

In the 113th Congress (2013-2015), as in the 112th Congress (2011-2103), are 45 Black members of Congress. The highest number of members ever was 47, in the 110th Congress (2007-2009).

This number has been steadily increasing from 11 in the 91st Congress (1969-1971) when Shirley Chisholm was the first elected Black woman, first elected African-American woman, first-elected daughter of the Caribbean. The 91st Congress was the first time since the 44th Congress that the number of Black members of Congress exceeded 7.

Above, Brooklyn Congresswoman Yvette D Clarke who was elected to replace Congressman Major Owens after he retired.
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"During Adam Clayton Powell jr's first term, he introduced legislation to extend the civil rights of District of Columbia residents, to outlaw lynching and the poll tax, and to end discrimination in the armed forces, housing, employment, and transportation.

He attached an anti–discrimination clause to so many pieces of legislation, the rider became known as the Powell Amendment. His rider was included in the 1964 Civil Rights Act. He was committed to prohibit federal funding to groups advocating unequal treatment of Black Americans.

Soon after his arrival in Washington, Powell challenged the informal regulations forbidding black Representatives from using Capitol facilities reserved for Members. Following the lead of Oscar De Priest, Powell often took black constituents to the whites–only House Restaurant and ordered his staff to eat there. Powell also successfully campaigned to desegregate the press galleries.

Powell’s aggressive stance on discrimination within Congress led to numerous confrontations with John E Rankin, a Democrat from Mississippi. When Rankin made known his intention to avoid sitting near an African–American Member, Powell responded by sitting close to the southern politician whenever possible. Powell said, “I am happy that Rankin will not sit by me because that makes it mutual. The only people with whom he is qualified to sit are Hitler and Mussolini.”

Powell spoke on the House Floor to condemn Rankin’s racial attack on Jewish journalist Walter Winchell. “Last week democracy was shamed by the uncalled for and unfounded condemnation of one of America’s great minorities.” Powell continued, “I am not a member of that great minority, but I will always oppose anyone who tries to besmirch any group because of race, creed or color. Let us give leadership to this nation in terms of racial and religious tolerance and stop petty bickering in this body.”

Powell demanded an inquiry by the House Parliamentarian into the use of “disparaging terms” on the floor.

In 1945, Powell looked to expose the prejudicial practices of the long–standing Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) after the organization refused to allow his wife, Hazel Scott, a jazz pianist, to perform in Constitution Hall. Mrs Truman refused to intercede. His characterization of Bess Truman as the “last lady” of the land, in response to her decision to attend a previously scheduled DAR tea, instigated a feud with President Harry S Truman that resulted in Powell’s exile from the White House during Truman’s years in office."

Pictures from the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation Annual Legislative Conference 2013. Top, library from the Walter C Washington Convention Center. Above, Congresswoman Frederica Wilson. Below, Congresswoman Robin Kelly. Left, Congresswoman Barbara Lee.
Ladies in Congress who are members of the Black Congressional Caucus. SJ Dodgson MJoTA 2013 v7n2 p0926

I spent the past 2 days reading about the Congressional Black Caucus and wow! what a story of brilliant, educated, inspired, hard-working, aware men. Until Shirley Chisholm roared in from New York. And then the ladies started moving in.

Congresswoman Yvette D Clarke participated in the Congressional Black Caucus Annual Legislative Conference, as did her mother, the Hon Una S Clarke. Congresswoman Clarke represents Brooklyn, as did Shirley Chisholm. The district boundaries have changed, the district are not the same. Congresswoman Clarke is a daughter of the Caribbean, of Jamaican parents. Congresswoman Chisholm was born to Caribbean parents, from Guyana and Barbados. I took the picture below at a CACCI event in July 2013.

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William L Dawson was the 3rd African American elected to Congress in the 20th century, the 3rd from Chicago.

Dawson described himself as a "congressman first and a Negro second,"

William Levi Dawson was born in Albany, Georgia, on April 26, 1886. Upon graduating from Albany Normal School in 1905, Dawson worked his way through Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, as a porter and a waiter.

He graduated in 1909, and in 1912 moved to Chicago and enlisted in the U.S. Army during World War I. In 1917 he became a first lieutenant.

After returning to Chicago, he resumed classes at Northwestern and was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1920.

In 1942, Dawson ran for Congress as a Democrat and won 53 % of the vote beginning a congressional career that lasted 27 years.

During his first 2 terms in office, Dawson was on the Coinage, Weights, and Measures; Invalid Pensions; and Irrigation and Reclamation committees. He also served on the Expenditures in the Executive Departments Committee (renamed Government Operations in 1952) from the 78th through the 80th Congress (1943–1949) before ascending to committee chair in 1949. Dawson held the post until 1970, with the exception of  the 83rd Congress (1953–1955), when Republicans controlled the House.

In 1960, John F. Kennedy's narrow victory in the key state of Illinois was largely dependent on the voters in Dawson's wards.

During his first term in the House, Dawson was the only African American serving in Congress.

Two years later, a second black Representative, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., of New York, joined Dawson.

Dawson rarely challenged racial discrimination publicly, choosing instead to work behind the scenes to pass legislation to assist his district and the Democratic Party.

"How is it," he said, "that after fighting all my life for the rights of my people, I suddenly awaken in the September of life to find myself vilified and abused, and those who know me well and what I have stood for are accusing me of being against civil rights."

Dawson defended his approach to politics while maligning some of his outspoken black colleagues, noting, "I use speeches only as the artisan does his stone, to build something. I don't talk just to show off."

Dawson introduced a major civil rights bill on the House Floor in 1963. Dawson's bill echoed proposals then being considered in Congress and eventually rolled into the 1964 Civil Rights Act: voting rights, ending discrimination in public accommodations, the creation of a Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity, and the prohibition of discrimination in federally funded programs.

"There is a crisis in America that is now a national danger," he pronounced, carefully enunciating his petition on behalf of the "citizens of the First Congressional District of Illinois.… Unless something is done about it, and it must be done soon, this crisis will become a national calamity."

During his tenure in the House, Dawson sought better appointments for blacks in the federal civil service and judiciary, supported southern voter registration drives, and blocked congressional efforts to undermine the integration of public schools in Washington, DC. He also opposed poll taxes and legislation he thought placed an excessive tax burden on low–income citizens.

 In 1951, Dawson played an integral role in ensuring that the Universal Military Training Act furthered the desegregation of the armed forces initiated in 1948; he helped defeat the Winstead Amendment, which would have permitted military personnel to choose whether they wanted to serve in white or black units.

Dawson spoke on the House floor  to urge his colleagues to end racial discrimination in the military, mentioning that an injury he sustained during World War I would not have become a lifelong affliction had he been allowed access to a white hospital."

Congressional Black Caucus recognizes the life of Congressman Major Owens, Brooklyn 11th District 1983-2007. Marcia L Fudge. MJoTA 2013 v7n2 p1022.

“Today we mourn the passing of a remarkable public servant, community leader and dear friend. Congressman Major Owens dedicated his life to empowering, securing and protecting the rights of underserved communities. Through his work, Mr. Owens helped build diverse coalitions of marginalized individuals who worked together to bring about the reform and social change needed to improve conditions for people across this nation.

“During his tenure in Congress, Congressman Owens was critical in drafting and passing the Americans with Disabilities Act that prohibited discrimination against millions living and working with disabilities. Through his leadership of New York City’s Community Development Agency and as a New York State Senator, Mr. Owens worked to promote education reform that would increase access to a quality public school education. He was also an ardent advocate for workforce development and community programs that helped individuals lift themselves out of poverty.

“Congressman Owens was a passionate and committed champion for all people, and never stopped fighting to ensure the voices of those he served were heard at all levels of government. The benefits of his service to our country and to this Congress will be felt for generations to come. Our prayers are with the Owens family during this very difficult time.”